1. Check what ghib said, I never use snap to curve so I don't really know.
2. This is something that really annoys me about Maya, coming from Max. I need to make two objects for every "solid" curve I want - one for the curve spline, one for the shape to loft. I just want to click the "renderable" box! I might see if I can write a simple script for this functionality.
3. You will not find anything as powerful as the Shell modifier in Maya. The closest you will come is what ghib said, an Extrude set to all faces. However if you just do a standard extrude it will not even be close to Max's Shell, since any modifications you do afterward will include the extruded polygons.
I have had some luck using the "polyDuplicateAndConnect" MEL command, to create an instance of the Shape below the same Transform node, then setting the polyExtrude node to work on shape.f[*] (different to all faces, since this includes all faces you may end up adding later, rather than just all the current faces which are usually represented as shape.f[0:9] for ten consecutive faces). Then it kinda works more like Max's Shell, although you still don't get outline extrude curve control or anything. There aren't any scripts for this either, I've looked.
You will have to suffer some pain in Maya for a while if you were very reliant on Shell in Max.
4. Again you're gonna feel pain on this coming from Max, where EVERY mode (move, rotate, scale) has the same set of coordinate spaces to choose from. Maya's Move has the most options, Rotate has mostly the same, but Scale is very limited in my experience. You're probably going to have to rely on using Insert a lot more to move around the pivot point manually, and get used to finding different approaches to scaling/rotating things.
5. ghib seems to have this covered, I've never run into it.
6. As ghib said, you should be able to adjust the Bridge Offset value in the node properties after doing a polyBridge command. For some reason it greys out the box (usually Maya-speak for "locked attribute") but you can still change it by typing a new value in, or sliding with MMB. Max's Bridge command usually seems to detect the best offset to start with, but Maya's bridge seems to ALWAYS need tweaking, it has never got the right offset value for me first time. You can change it manually though, for sure.
Hope that helps!